An AVM is a tangled mass of malformed blood vessels. These blood vessels are enlarged and therefore have a risk of bleeding.
There are three main ways of treating an AVM:
An embolisation is a way of treating an AVM so it is no longer at risk from bleeding. AVMs are treated using specially manufactured materials which are injected into the vessels of the AVM and are designed to reduce the flow through the vessels. In most circumstances embolisation is used to shrink an AVM so that it is suitable for radiosurgery or neurosurgery. Sometimes embolisation can treat an AVM completely. The procedure is usually carried out in several stages involving separate admissions to hospital usually over a period of months.
Stereotactic Radiosurgery is a single treatment of high dose radiation directed specifically at the centre of the AVM. This treatment is sometimes referred to as ‘gamma knife’ surgery however, despite its name, this procedure does not entail any surgical operation.
Neurosurgery is the longest established treatment option for AVM’s. It involves creating an opening in the skull, called a craniotomy, allowing the neurosurgeon to surgically remove the AVM.
Brain Aneurysm is a balloon –like bulge in the wall of brain artery. If this bulge tears and bleeds, nearby cells may be damaged. A brain aneurysm can occur in an artery wall that is weak or has a defect. Aneurysm is often associated with hardening of the arteries. High blood pressure, heredity, or a head injury is also risk factor.
Most unfortunate part of this ailment is that in most cases, there are no symptoms until it bleeds or tears.
They present with any of these symptoms. These include:
When a brain aneurysm bleeds, in most cases, the bleeding stops quickly. However, if blood that has leaked touches brain cell, the cells may be damaged. Blood in the CSF increases pressure on the brain. Leaked blood may also touch nearby arteries, which may causes these arteries to narrow.
Treating aneurysm is an emergency. Often to be done within 72 hrs of being diagnosed. Overall aim of the intervention is to prevent further bleeding.
Based on the type of aneurysm the Neuro-surgeon decide upon the type of surgery to be performed. Craniotomy, clipping the aneurysm, Occlusion and Bypass or Endovascular procedure are the available options.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.] There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.
All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved. These symptoms may include headaches, seizures, problem with vision, vomiting, and mental changes. The headache is classically worse in the morning and goes away with vomiting. More specific problems may include difficulty in walking, speaking, and with sensation. As the disease progresses unconsciousness may occur.
Treatment may include combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy